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The Relationship of Self-Efficacy Expectancies to Relapse among Alcohol Dependent Men and Women: A Prospective Study
Shelly F. Greenfield, Michael R. Hufford, Lisa M. Vagge, Larry R. Muenz, Margaret E. Costello, Roger D. Weiss
Objective: We studied the relationship of self-efficacy expectancies measured during inpatient alcohol treatment and time to first drink and time to relapse following hospitalization. We also examined whether the relationship of in-hospital self-efficacy and posttreatment drinking outcome differed by gender. Method: We measured self-efficacy expectancies using the Situational Confidence Questionnaire (SCQ) in 100 subjects (59 men) during inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. We followed subjects monthly for 1 year and examined the relationship of their in-hospital SCQ scores to posttreatment drinking behavior, as measured by time to first drink, time to relapse and percent abstinent days. Results: Self-efficacy during hospitalization was related to relapse during the 12 months following hospitalization. Survival analysis demonstrated that in-hospital SCQ scores greater than 45 were predictive of better drinking outcomes. The median number of days to relapse after treatment were 30 and 135, respectively, in those with in-hospital SCQ scores less than or equal to 45 compared with those with SCQ scores greater than 45. There were no gender differences in self-efficacy measured during hospitalization, nor were there gender differences in the relationship of self-efficacy to time to relapse. However, men with SCQ scores less than or equal to 45 had fewer abstinent days during follow-up. Conclusions: Among both men and women being treated for alcohol dependence, a cut-off score of 45 on the SCQ may be especially important in helping clinicians assess patients who are at high risk for more rapid return to drinking after hospitalization. (J. Stud. Alcohol 61: 345-351, 2000)