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Norms and Alcohol Consumption: Japanese in Japan, Hawaii and California
Harry H. L. Kitano, Iris Chi, Siyon Rhee, C. K. Law, James E. Lubben
The study compared age/sex norms and alcohol consumption of a sample of Japanese from Japan and Japanese Americans in Hawaii and California. Age norms included acceptable drinking levels for the following age groups: 16, 21, 40 and 60, both male and female. There were significant differences in norms across the sites with the Japanese in Japan holding the most tolerant views of heavier drinking for men, followed by California and Hawaii. The Japanese-American samples were more tolerant of female drinking than were the Japanese. There was a high degree of similarity between Hawaii and California, whereas Japanese respondents in Japan differed in their responses. A correlation between drinking and norms by site indicated a high degree of congruence between drinking and more tolerant norms for drinking in all of the samples: Those who drank the most also had the most permissive norms toward drinking. The differences in norms between Japanese in Japan and Japanese Americans were explained in terms of enculturation and acculturation. (J. Stud. Alcohol 53: 33-39, 1992)