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Drug Use Patterns and Continuous Enrollment in College: Results From a Longitudinal Study
Amelia M. Arria, Laura M. Garnier-Dykstra, Kimberly M. Caldeira, Kathryn B. Vincent, Emily R. Winick, Kevin E. O'Grady
Objective: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between illicit drug use and academic outcomes among college students. This study characterized drug use patterns of a cohort of young adults who were originally enrolled as first-time, first-year college students in a longitudinal study. It evaluated the association between these drug use patterns and continuous enrollment during college, holding constant demographic characteristics, high school grade point average, fraternity/sorority involvement, personality/temperament characteristics, nicotine dependence, and alcohol use disorder. Method: Participants (n = 1,133; 47% male) were purposively selected from one university and interviewed annually for 4 years, beginning with their first year of college, regardless of continued college attendance. Enrollment data were culled from administrative records. Group-based trajectory analyses characterized 4-year longitudinal drug use patterns. Two grouping variables were derived based on (a) marijuana use frequency and (b) number of illicit drugs used other than marijuana. Seventy-one percent of the sample was continuously enrolled in the home institution during the first 4 years of study. Results: Multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that infrequent, increasing, and chronic/heavy marijuana use patterns were significantly associated with discontinuous enrollment (adjusted odds ratio = 1.66, 1.74, and 1.99, respectively), compared with minimal use, holding constant covariates. In separate models, drug use other than marijuana also was significantly associated with discontinuous enrollment. Conclusions: Marijuana use and other illicit drug use are both associated with a decreased likelihood of continuous enrollment in college, independent of several other possible risk factors. These findings highlight the need for early intervention with illicit drug users to mitigate possible negative academic consequences. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 71–83, 2013)